Properties of Acids and Bases


A table of these properties is shown here which distinguishes  acids and bases apart from one another by some of their easily observed chemical and physical properties.


Arrhenius Definition:

An acid is any chemical compound which when dissolved in water gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water.A base is an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions.
Bronstead Lowry Definition:An acid is an substance which donates a proton.A base is any substance which accepts a proton.
Physical characteristicsDepending on the temperature, acids can occur in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Taste sour.Bases feel slippery because of the reaction of the base with the oils of your hand. Frequently solids except ammonia which is a gas. Taste bitter.
Strengthdepends on concentration of the hydronium ionsdepends on concentration of the hydroxide ions
DissociationAcids free hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed with water.Bases free hydroxide ions (OH-) when mixed with water.
Chemical FormulaAn acid has a chemical formula with H at the beginning of it. There is one exception to his rule, CH3COOH = Acetic Acid (vinegar)A base has a chemical formula with OH at the end of it
Litmus testAcids change litmus paper red.Bases change litmus paper blue.
ExamplesAcetic acid i.e.CH3COOH and Sulfuric acidSodium Hydroxide (NAOH) and Ammonia (NH3)

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